Kiel Life Science

Nematode worms hitch a ride on slugs

Jul 13, 2015

Kiel scientists expand the understanding of Caenorhabditis elegans’ natural ecology


Slugs and other invertebrates provide essential public transport for small worms including Caenorhabditis elegans in the search for food, as researchers from Kiel University have now found out. These worms are around a millimeter long and commonly found in short-lived environments, such as decomposing fruit or other rotting plant material. Read more... The worms face a high level of unpredictability in these environments as temperature and food availability fluctuate, and frequently need to move to new locations. However, little is understood on how such a small animal with limited mobility is able to travel long distances to find new food. Research published today in the open access journal BMC Ecology

provides new insights into the natural ecology of nematodes and shows how the animals solve this transportation problem.

 

Searching in gardens and compost heaps, a team of researchers collected over 600 slugs, and over 400 other invertebrates including flies, centipedes, spiders, beetles and locusts. Through dissection and microscopic analysis, they tested for the presence of nematode worms that may have been hitching a ride on those animals. The survey revealed that nematode worms are commonly found in slugs, woodlice and centipedes, having possibly been unintentionally taken up while these animals feed on rotting plant material. Further experiments confirmed that the worms invaded the guts of slugs, survived and proliferated within the intestines, and were subsequently excreted alive with the slug feces.

 

Lead author Hinrich Schulenburg from Kiel University’s department of Evolutionary Ecology and Genetics and member of the research focus “Kiel Life Science” said: “Even though nematode worms are one of the most intensively studied organisms in almost all biological disciplines, we still have very little understanding of their natural ecology. Our study reveals a previously unknown nematode lifestyle within the guts of slugs. The worms appear to have evolved to persist in the harsh environment of slug intestines, similar to a symbiont or even a parasite.”

 

To test the worm’s ability to enter and persist in the slug’s intestines, they performed a laboratory experiment, during which 79 slugs were exposed to a total of 1,185,000 fluorescently-tagged worms, which was followed by microscopic analysis of the dissected slugs.

 

The nematode worms, at various stages of their lifecycle, were able to invade and persist for a short time in slug intestines. Through further analysis of the slug feces, the team confirmed that the worms survived the entire passage through the digestive system, and were subsequently excreted alive. The nematode worms persisted for not more than one day in the slugs’ intestines, suggesting that the worms may achieve longer travel by repeated invasion of different slugs.

 

As the worms enter and leave the slug without any obvious harm and the slugs survived large worm infestations without any obvious damage, it is thought that this could be a harmless interaction where at least the nematodes benefit, but further research is needed to rule out a parasitic association.

 

The team suggest that the worms take advantage of the moist environment within some invertebrates, especially snails and slugs which constantly produce mucus to aid locomotion. Slug intestines may be even more advantageous because they also provide a bacterial community which may be exploited as food for the worms.

Photos/material is available for download:
Please pay attention to our ► Hinweise zur Verwendung

Click to enlarge

A slug Arion spec. commonly found in northern Germany, now known to be used by hitch-hiking nematodes for transportation.
Photo: Carola Petersen, Hinrich Schulenburg

Image to download:
www.uni-kiel.de/download/pm/2015/2015-263-1.jpg

Click to enlarge

Dr. Carola Petersen, the lead scientist of the study, in front of an enormous compost heap, which has been one of the Caenorhabditis elegans collection sites.
Photo: Carola Petersen, Hinrich Schulenburg

Image to download:
www.uni-kiel.de/download/pm/2015/2015-263-2.jpg

Click to enlarge

The worm Caenorhabditis elegans is a very well-studied model organism in biology.
Image: Antje Thomas, Hinrich Schulenburg

Image to download:
www.uni-kiel.de/download/pm/2015/2015-263-3.gif

 

Original work:

 

Carola Petersen, Ruben Joseph Hermann, Mike-Christoph Barg, Rebecca Schalkowski, Camilo Barbosa, and Hinrich Schulenburg, Travelling at a slug's pace: invertebrate vectors of Caenorhabditis nematodes, BMC Ecology

2015.

dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12898-015-0050-z

 

 

Contact:

 

Prof. Hinrich Schulenburg

Department of Evolutionary Ecology and Genetics

Zoologisches Institut, Kiel University

Tel.: 0431-880-4141

E-Mail: hschulenburg@zoologie.uni-kiel.de

 

 

More information:

 

Department of Evolutionary Ecology and Genetics, Zoological Institute, Kiel University

www.uni-kiel.de/zoologie/evoecogen/

 

 

Research focus „Kiel Life Science“, Kiel University

http://www.kls.uni-kiel.de/en

 

 

Kiel University

Press, Communication and Marketing, Dr. Boris Pawlowski

Address: D-24098 Kiel, phone: +49 (0431) 880-2104, fax: +49 (0431) 880-1355

E-Mail: ► presse@uv.uni-kiel.de, Internet: ► www.uni-kiel.de, Jubiläum: ► www.uni-kiel.de/cau350

 

Twitter: ► www.twitter.com/kieluni, Facebook: ► www.facebook.com/kieluni

 

Text: Joel Winston, Edited by: Christian Urban
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